We ignore completely and the country of origin of the vine (Vitis vinifera) and the people who, the first one, knew how to make the wine. The history and the tradition transmitted us on this material only uncertain and vague notions. Some people want that Osiris, the bacchus of the Greeks, found the vine around of Nysa, city of Happy Arabia and that he transported it and cultivated in India.
Others attribute to Noé the discovery of the first culture of the vineyard and have it of this Hebrew patriarch Racchus of the Greeks, maybe even Jmius of Latins.
Most of the historians say that the vine is native of the center of Asia and particularly of Persia. We establish ourselves, to assert this origin, on the fact that the naturalist André Michaux found the vine to the wild state in Persia and on the fact that the naturalist Pallas, at the end of the last century, met it in Crimea and the traveler Ollivier in the mountains of the Kurdistan.
We read, in most of the works, that the vine was brought in the Gauls by the peoples of Asia, is by the Phoenician, ships of which touched all the ports of the Mediterranean Sea, or by the Phocaean, which established Marseille 600 years before Jesus Christ and which would then have endowed with the culture of the vine the territory of the new town. The inhabitants of the Gauls did not need to receive peoples of Asia the art to make the wine. Our country being the most favored by the nature to make grow the vine and to mature the grape, we can support, without too much audacity, that the inhabitants of the Southern Gaul and the central Gaul managed quite naturally themselves to cultivate the vine, by giving their care to the wild vine which filled their forests.
In any event, when « Julius Caesar » penetrated, with his armies, in the Gauls, he found the use of the wine, spread at all the peoples of this region.
After the conquest of the Gauls and thanks to the business connections which became established between the defeated people and his conquerors, the culture of the vine took a big development in this country.
The culture of the vine had enriched Gaul to the point that the prosperity of the conquered people excited the jealousy of the winner. Gaul being in a rival for the production and trade of wines, which it intended rival next victory and she hardly supported competition, Italy demanded revenge for its emperors. This was cowardly and cruel vengeance and his only memory still strikes ancient Italy disapproval of a stamp. The year 96 of the Christian era, the emperor Domitian ordered to pull most of the vines in Gaul.
The orders of Domitian were not, however, carried out only half. The Gauls resisting the injunctions of Rome and many vineyards escaped the imperial commissioners. While maintaining its defense, the emperor was thus forced to retreat before the general discontent and renounced to enforce the decree in its entirety.
Probus, who began his military career by an expedition against the rebellious Gauls, probably jealous of definitively incorporated to the empire he felt that people whose brilliant qualities, revoked the edict of Domitian and ordered his legions to replant vineyards that odious tyranny was torn off two centuries ago.
History has not Probus praised enough, this great political act submitted wholeheartedly grateful to Roman Gaul administration and delivered Italy from the terror that inspired him these great armies, from the top of the Alps, had so often precipitated as avalanches on its fertile fields.
seedlings brought from Sicily, Greece, Archipelago and Africa, became the type of grape varieties that cover the hillsides vineyards of France today. The Aquitaine wine soon acquired fame beyond.
The Franks, lured into Gaul by the vine culture gave great encouragement. They pushed the esteem they carried him to the point of giving pen they owned the name of noble vine, from which came the word corruption by vineyards and October took in their language the month name wines. These conquerors had no sooner put your lips on the edge of the enchanted cup, they asked for baptism in the Church of Gaul.
Henri III, King of the League, was shipped in 1578 Letters Patent "for pullout vineyards around Bordeaux, "which was done not without complaints and murmurings of interest.
Louis XV true king lazy in the soul which were allied superstition and debauchery, he published an edict dated 5 in June 1332, condemning (3,000 fr). fine anyone would plant vines without the king's permission.
Under Henry IV and the first period of the reign of Louis XIV, France better administered rose from its miseries in its discretion and could leverage its territory. The private interest, remained the sole judge of the kind of culture required by each type of soil.
Among the red wines of Bordeaux, are distinguished by their sweet bouquet, united with some astringency. The best red wines are those of Médoc, Saint-Julien, Pauillac, Saint-Estèphe, Saint-Emilion, the Palus, Talence, Léognan, Pessac and Merignac.
Among the white wines of Bordeaux, those in Sauterne, Bommes, of Bions, Blanquefort, Grave, Barsac, Preignac and Langon.
Besides these top wines, Bordeaux provides many ordinary wines. The wines of Messanges of Sarliat and the banks of the Adour, called sand wines, which are harvested in the Landes department, rival those of Bordeaux.
The mildew [ View Photo ] and oïdium [ View Photo ] are small mold that attacks the vine organs, especially the leaves and grapes. It was found for the first time in south-west France in 1878, without which scientists quickly find a cure. It was only by chance that one of the scientists, Alexis Millardet, comforted his research already advanced to the discovery of the remedy.
A. Millardet, Professor of Botany at the Faculty of Science of Bordeaux, during an outing in October 1882 Médoc was amazed at the beautiful dress vineyards along the road, Ducru-Beaucaillou castle in Saint-Julien-Beychevelle (Médoc), with Nathaniel Johnston.
The estate manager, Ernest David, told him that Médoc had become used to spread a mixture of copper sulphate and lime on vines roadside to deter marauders stealing grapes.
Research by: Alexis Millardet and Ulysse Gayon, allowed to discover the "Bordeaux mixture", mixture of water, copper sulphate and lime, which gives a greenish blue gruel, which used by spraying on the leaves and fruit of the vine. This is a preventive treatment against mildew.
This traditional product is controversial today, particularly because of the abuses that have been observed on certain crops.
The repeated use for more than a century of Bordeaux mixture in some vineyards leads to an accumulation of copper in the soil. You should know that this metal does not degrade and little lye.
Botrytis cinerea, or Noble Rot
The fungus Botrytis cinerea [ View Photo ] [ View Photo ] is present from the flowering vines, berries. We must respect their development and control from June to August, in order not to jeopardize the early ripening of the grapes. Some winemakers abhor thus any spray anti-fungal products. Only green work (budding, leafing, ...) control its too early development, which is desired that when the berries have reached sufficient maturity.
The fungus feeds on grapes and water for effect of concentrating the sugar in the grapes. It also has implications for the wine's aromas (typical nose "botrytis"). A "sweet Botrytis" is not a "sweet dry wine" noble rot sugars are the most complete, they are in the mouth of a great purity.
To produce botrytis grapes morning humidity of months October and November is essential to foster the develop ment of the fungus, it must be followed by dry weather to facilitate evaporation of the water. The presence of a nearby river vineyard may allow the development of the noble rot, in Sauternes, the Ciron who plays this role.
In the fall, the skin of overripe berries botrytis becomes purplish and the flesh turns in golden jam.
Bordeaux barrels [ View Photo ] [Details Wikipedia]
Two barrels are known: " the «bordelaise» of transport " and " the «bordelaise» of castle " (more beautiful and more resistant).
The barrel of castle :
Built in oak staves, staves, not sawn, to preserve the sealing of the timber. Similarly they are always taken from the heart wood, called "real wood" or "heartwood" (duramen). The merrains are dried in the open air for many months (18-48 months). Studies have shown that the action of the mycelium of a fungus positive impact on their future taste of the barrel.
The staves are planed finer board that takes the name stave. The staves are sorted and refined. Their edges are slightly narrowed at the ends and the fibers must fit the shape of the stave to ensure water resistance.
It consists of 17 douelles (or douelles) that have from 16 to 18 millimeters thick at both ends and 12 and 14 millimeters in the central portion, the wider (move it).
The staves are placed side by side in a circle of metal. The shape of the staves give a star shape on the opposite side of the hoop. A cable is wrapped around said ends for bending. A burning brazier waste of the same wood as the barrels is introduced into the barrel manufacturing. The heat will soften the wood fiber that will gradually take the form of the barrel under the action of the cable tightens the woods. When the barrel is formed, a further metal ring is placed before loosening the cable. The body of the barrel is made.
She joined the toasting fireplace, heater or fireplace, which gives the casks, barrels are understood, its powerful aroma and character (light heaters, medium, medium +, strong ...). The heater will cook the wood surface and change the chemical bonding of molecules wood polyphenols.
The heater will cook the wood surface and change the chemical bonding of molecules wood polyphenols. The barrel funds, whose barrels are made of planks. Among them, a rod blade serves as seal. The boards are secured together by wooden pegs. The assembly uses only wood (cement or metal). The funds are embedded in notches provided for this purpose.
The Bordeaux barrel has a capacity of 225 liters, with a tolerance of 2 liters. Its length is 91 centimeters, its largest outer circumference of 2.18 meters and its empty weight is 45 kg. Its function is essentially aging in a cellar or winery because it is not built for transport.
The hole on the move is called the bung and the other placed on the bottom is called ducking.
Bordeaux surroundings and its wines - Charles Cocks - 1850 [See photo coverage]
Canton of Pauillac
The planting method is to turn the field upside down direction; and if the iron pan is too close to the ground surface, it is trapping in the deck, or, after digging the ditch, there Perce at the bar holes where you put the plant or crossette and was added thereto manure and earth, transported in advance for this purpose. These diverse finished, we dig a new ditch, the earth used to fill the first; we straighten the plant, and after cutting three nodes above the ground, you tie with the vime carasson.
Then, from one end to the other Rege, it connects all carassons by pine slats, placed horizontally to 33 percent, of the soil, so as to form a continuous wall bars. One size after having covered the plant the vine, that is to say after the way given by the farmer. The plantations are in January, February, March, and sometimes even in April.
For two or three years, the seedlings receive six plowed annually: three to open the furrow plowed and three closed. The vineyards generally receive four ways, all the plow. The first way, made around 20 February, with the plow called Cabat, aims to open the furrow and to identify the roots of the vine; the second, made in April, with the curve, is used to dust off the vine; the third, made in May, with l'ecabat is similar to the first; and fourth, as the second is with the curve as soon as there is third completed.
The couch is very injurious to the vine, too, in the months of January and February, workers follow exactly all the vine règes to snatch this parasitic weed. In May, unnecessary branches, called greedy wood, are carefully cut, but retains those that are conveniently arranged to make Provins. In July, we épampre and shortens the branches of the vine, so that air flows more freely and verjuice receives more directly the influence of sunlight.
As the vines have little more than 42 centimeters height, and are therefore often covered by earth thrown by the plow, women and children follow exactly all the vines and fall verjuice to expose it to sunlight.
All four or five years, one removes the moss that attaches to the trunks of the vines and holds the eggs or larvae of pests. This takes place after the frosts.
The vine produces at the age of five years; to twelve years is in full force. Its duration depends on the care it receives from the soil, and especially the size, operation is done at the end of October, the leaves fall and should be completed before the frost.
It is the hardest part of the culture, and it requires great care and discernment. In the Canton of Pauillac, one sees vineyards that, say, two hundred years and are still good; while others perish before fifty years. In a gravelly or sandy terrain without too much humidity, it is very long; and we watch Pessac vineyards which, according to tradition, dating from the fourteenth century, having been planted by Pope Clement V. In general, however, the average length of the vine, in a very favorable terrain, is one hundred and fifty years.
The only serious accident in which the vine is exposed, is hail; although it is very rare in the township of Pauillac, though she sometimes devastated vast properties.
There are also three species of insects that are wreaking havoc in the vineyards: snails, which eat the buds, the aphid oubarbot, golden-green insect, which sucks the sap of young wood and finally Vattelabe green, also known under the names of appetite bud, uvula and goat.
This insect is the most destructive of all, it cuts branches the vine, even when they have gained a lot of development.
A vineyard devastated by this insect seems to have been devastated by-fire. It picks up carefully all these insects and bypassed leaves and burning them off the vine.
Red Vines Grapes
Are grown a dozen varieties in the Médoc; the first vintages only admit the following :
1° The Carbenet, or Carmen and Petite Vidure, àfeuilles hairless and slightly jagged, medium grain, round and tight enough, a shiny black color, pleasant taste . It gives a fine, light wine, fragrant, but not very colorful;
2° or Sauvignon Grand Carmenet [Carmenelle in the marshes and in severe Carbenet) is also called Grosse Vidure. Grain, a bright color and excellent taste, is bigger and more separated than the previous variety. The cluster also is longer and bigger. The wine it gives is as thin and more colorful than the Carmenet. Several vintage wine grow only these two species.
3° The Petit Verdot wearing pale green leaves, short grain menu clusters of rosy color and a delicate taste. It matures more slowly, but it provides a firm wine, fragrant, with a beautiful color and long lasting. Gros Verdot has the same qualities as the small, only the fruit is bigger.
4° The Malbeck, so called after the name of a trader who propagated it in the Médoc, is also known as the Black Pressac, of Mancin and Soumancigne. His brown bears large rounded leaves and long clusters with oval grains, black and detached. The Malbeck produced many colorful wine, but low.
6. Some great vintages also admit the Tarney, the trefoil leaf is smooth, low woods and vagabond. His black grain, thin skin, matures quickly and gives a ruby colored wine.
6. The other varieties are :
6. The Cruchinet, also called the Merlot, it has the feuillegrande, pointed, green, cut the coarse, detached, prorapt to mature, covered with a duvet as the premium and crunchy to the bite. This grape, delicious taste, gives a delicate wine, but little color; Black Chalosse, elongated grains, very large and provided clusters, making it much. The Dyer or Alicante, vine crimson, with glabrous leaves, cottony at the back, round and tight grain and short racemes; it is used to give color to ordinary quality wines. The Pelouille or Pelouye, whitish leaves, coarse, a pale color. or suspecting the Persillade, whose leaves resemble in shape, to those of parsley. The Pied-de-Perdrix in brown, long clusters, producing grapes of good taste, but a very ordinary wine. Finally, Balouzat, big and round grain, quick to mature and palatable, abundantly produced a full-bodied and colored wine, but of inferior quality.
Vines Grapes of white
Vine the blarnche are planted in small joualles Joualles was fields consisted of intercalary plots of land cultivated and spaced out by rows of vine and fruit trees. in great vintages and large joualles in others; ranks, either single or double thereof, are separated by an interval ranging from five to ten furrows space that is devoted to cereals and vegetables. The vines, planted at a distance of 1 meter 30 centimeters, rise at different heights, depending on the cultivation method adopted by the owner. The carasson échalasser used for these vines often 2 meters high.
The great vintages of Sauternes, Bommes, Preignac and Barsac series hardly cultivate the following varieties:
Semilion, reddish wood, somewhat flattened, with very leaves cut in many clusters of round grain provided, fat, golden, shiny and delicate taste.
Sauvignon, a yellowish-gray wood, mottled brown, with serrated leaves, dark green, well clusters provided oblong grains, amber, giving a fragrant wine, but heady.
The Rochalin, which ripens later, similar to Sauvignon enough, only its leaves are larger and its fruit is less palatable.
Le Blanc-Doux , a very delicate taste, recognized by its grayish wood, leaf by its bright green and slightly serrated; Finally, by its average cluster to transparent grains, colored and spotted with brown.
The Verdot, a very fine taste, the yellowish wood, striped brown bears large thick leaves, dark green and small grains slow to mature.
The Prueras, which gives a lot of wine, and whose wood is grayish, thick sheet, mat green and coarse, tasty and promptly ripening.
Grapes which yield only white wines ordinary
Chalosse The big White, which produces large elongated and detached grain clusters, the Spike Poux or Enrageat Enrageat (vine white with the southwest): synonym for crazy white. which provides a lot of wine and finally, the Blanquette and Blaye, which look pretty and also give a lot wine of poor quality.
It is generally accepted today that the Cabernet is the main basis of the best vintages of white wines and the first grown in this country, Yquem, owes its superiority primarily to the exclusive cultivation of this variety . This fact is, in a way, corroborated by the success that reached the owner of the White Tower, which for thirty years, has planted nearly all his well with this variety, so it grew became almost the rival of Yquem. This grape is also said that, under another name, the main cause of the excellent wines of the Rhine, particularly Johannisberg.
The joyful harvest season does not begin simultaneously in all cantons of the department. the time varies depending on the soil of various localities and cultivation method. In the best vintages of the Médoc, particularly in the Canton of Pauillac, one generally starts around the end of the first half of September, while in more remote towns of the river, we hear the shouts and songs of pickers as to the 20th of this month.
The common grave vendangent fortnight after the Medoc. The coasts, eight days after the bass, marshes, to October 10, so that these celebrations are prolonged campaign for nearly six weeks.
If the season seems favorable, we expect that the grapes and the soil is sufficiently dry before starting work.
This meeting of workers called maneuver. There is a maneuver commander règes or twelve rows of vines, its task is to hasten the cutters and ensure they do not forget grapes.
It has the pickers as follows: women and Children are responsible to cut the grapes, they must reject the verjuice The verjuice is the acid juice extracts grapes not having matured (said also green grapes). and any rotten fruit or scalded; one or two cutters that put the grapes in baskets placed at each row of vines. An empty basket receives each cutter and empty the basket when it is full in a baste ( small wooden tub containing about 12 pots The pot amounts to 2 liters eleven centilitres. ). At the same time the maker of redfish crowd grapes, taking care not to crush them. For eight rows of vines, you put two carriers redfish, they receive to back on a straw pillow and go empty in two small tanks (called sockets) placed on a cart. The charge secompose about thirty to two redfish. If both sockets are full, the herdsman leads the charge at the vat.
At the arrival of douils or sleeves, the men of the press (the number varies from three to five, depending on the size of the harvest) and receive empty them in the press.
The press, in oak wood or hard stones, like Lafite and elsewhere, consists of four sides of 45 centimeters fell, meeting at right angles, and a base of approximately 3 square meters which is slightly tilted forward and raised to 66 centimeters from the ground.
This is followed by stalking, which is a fairly general use in the Medoc, some do it with rakes, others rubbing clusters on a sieve or gervis wire-to-iron and having the shape of a square table. In this way, the entire harvest through the hands of men of the press, it is easy to remove all that is bad and leave no seed to rape.
After stalking, rape is the last in a drain Another press, then men, bare legs, gather the seeds in a pile and following each round, trampling trample them. Many owners maintain and regulate the activity of fullers through music.
On the front of the press there is a hole, as the crushing takes place, releases must which is received through a strainer into a large bucket called gargoyle.
The wine holders must put this into long bucket, called behave, which are traversed in their upper part by a long stick, to be carried by two men, walking with measured steps, climb on two scales and pour the must into the tanks.
Some owners, contrary to pressing, confine the operation to make stalking and pour the fruit into tanks without having crushed.
Work is set to fill the tank in the same day, especially when it's hot. 50 centimeters is left empty, because it is too dangerous to load the tanks, we would run the chance of losing a lot of wine during the great fermentation.
Fermentation is established as soon as the tank is full, if time is hot. It is recognized that winemaking is completed when there is no apparent fermentation and the wine begins to cool, which happens from eighth to tenth day. The owners have not adopted a fixed rule for the duration of the winery, but most do not let sleep it off over twelve days.
Before loading the tank is placed a tap wrench 1 meter above the base and repeatedly each day we follow the different gradations of winemaking.
Wines red of graves
Wines Red "Graves" is the name given to graves wines that are reaping the pebbled ground near Bordeaux, and extend up about ten kilometers south and west of the city.
Charles Cocks Charles Cocks, Author mainly of a work considered as precursor of the classifications of wines of Bordeaux and in particular the official Classification of wines of Bordeaux of 1855 is a professor and a British translator installed(settled) in Bordeaux from 1840.
Charles Cocks went down in history to have been the author, while he was in office in Bordeaux, of a guide in The intention of his British fellow countrymen, dedicated to the region of Bordeaux and in whom he is interested in particular In the wine productions and in their quality. The work is published for the first time in English in London in 1846. He is noticed by a publisher of Bordeaux, Michel-Édouard Féret, who suggests him publishing him in French version, it Which is made in 1850.
Conceived(Designed) in its first edition(publishing) as a tourist guide, the work contains an important inventory, a municipality by municipality, vineyards in service in the middle of the XIXth century, matched by a classification(ranking) for every wine which, next to the usual(customary) classification in " considered bourgeois ", " considered craftsmen (architects) and " peasant vineyards ", establishes for certain vineyards in particular of the Médoc a hierarchy which already distinguishes exceptional products, presented as "Premier Crus".
This work will regularly be republished at the end of the XIXth century then throughout the XXth century in France and in the United Kingdom and remain a reference of the Publishing house " Féret " today, based in Bordeaux and specialized in the works dedicated to the vineyard(vine) and to the wine, to the point to keep(preserve) in its presentation(display) the name of his(her) first author, and to be collectively indicated(appointed) under the name of "Cocks and Féret". The 18th French edition(publishing) of the work was published in 2007. - Bordeaux ses environs et ses vins - 1850
The story of the 1855 ranking - Dewey Markham jr - « 1855 – Bordeaux surroundings and its wines »
The Bordeaux history is reflected in the classification of its wines. This list is more than a hierarchy of vineyards; it says a lot about the origins of the region on trade in wine which animates and of course the castles themselves.
The geographic location of Bordeaux has decided its commercial destined from the most time remote. Founded on the banks of the Garonne, the city was a Roman counter where wine inland were loaded onto ships bound for Italy.
Subsequently, when the planting of vineyards around Bordeaux made a major producing area The wine trade continued to follow the sea. One reason for this was that the inside trading was facing a sharp challenge.
The major French consumers of wine of this quality were in the nobility, in Paris and at court; and removal of the capital was that many taxes were imposed on the Bordeaux wine during transportation. Vineyards closer to Paris, such as Burgundy or Champagne, suffered less tax, and therefore tended to be more popular, being less expensive
The Bordeaux wine market was so from the beginning and in the international 17th century, the main purchasers were the Dutch and the English. The nature of its customers highly oriented the character and quality of this wine, but in different ways.
The Dutch demanded a product with good price, quality being a secondary concern for them. Car purchases were primarily for then be delivered to their colonies and a fine wine was likely to lose its smoothness well before reaching destination. To preserve wines during these long trips and allow them to age properly, the Dutch merchants devised all kinds of techniques: for example, burning sulfur inside the barrel before filling them.
It was centuries before Louis Pasteur should discover the bacteria responsible for the deterioration of the wine. Without knowing the scientific reason, the Dutch had so pragmatically found that sulfur, antibacterial agent, was helping in the conservation of the wine. Through such methods, they thus contributed to show that the Bordeaux wine did not need to be drunk young and earned the contrary much older
The other main bordeaux lovers all had different requirements.
It was for their own consumer that the British bought this wine and transportation by boat was relatively fast. They therefore demanded the highest quality possible and the vogue of burgundy in high society was such that prices did not cease to increase.
In the 1640s, it was enough for a consumer to request a Médoc wine to be assured of the best quality and price lists at the time show that burgundy were classified according to the major regional divisions.
But with time, the requirements of the customer became more precise, and settled on a few towns whose excellence techniques production had asserted. And we see that from the second half of the 17th century, some Graves, for example, are defined on the lists as Pessac.
In a few decades, the British became more and more specific as to the origins of burgundy, and after having given to the municipalities, their attention turned to producers who have acquired a reputation that distinguished them from their neighbors.
It is generally considered that the process began with a commercial initiative of Arnaud de Pontac, the owner of Haut-Brion. During the rebuilding of London after the Great Fire of 1666, Pontac sent his son to the British capital to open under the name of The Pontac's Head tavern as a showcase for its production. This tavern, and wine, quickly became the rage in high society, and it was then fashionable to specify the domain name to purchase a Bordeaux. At the end of the 17th century, customers no longer content to ask a Pessac: they wanted the merchants provide them Haut-Brion to their cellars.
The Haut-Brion was not the only area to receive this recognition marks among British consumers. Three other areas had together forged a distinct identity: Margaux, the municipality of the same name, Latour and Lafite Pauillac nearby.
The incomparable quality of the wines of these four areas had fame of their names and the importance of demand led prices to heights not reached any other burgundy. Haut-Brion, Margaux, Latour and Lafite and created their own commercial category, known under the title of "first growths".
By the middle of the 18th century, other owners, including the financial benefit of quality research, endeavored to produce wines worthy of the attention of wealthy English amateurs, and some areas were able to win a high reputation in the market, without reaching the extremely high rating of the first four grands crus. These areas, who practiced very similar tariffs were called "second thought". This category comprised a dozen of areas.
However, other areas were beginning to emerge from the anonymity of their community, without even get the net trade identity acquired by the first and second raw, paving the way for future wine quality which would ensure a precise place in this emerging hierarchy of wines.
In the spring of 1787 with the arrival of Thomas Jefferson in Bordeaux, this classification system included a well defined category of third raw. The commercial success of the third raw then prompted a new series of wine just enter the lower category.
The price lists of the 1820 show the evolution of this type of classification. Raw fourth are emerging, while the third got rich new raw uncooked names, and early 1850s, there were five well-defined levels in commercial hierarchy comprises sixty wine producers.
When one considers that the position of a field in these lists was linked to the price of its bottles on the market. This sort of disparity between the first location of a domain in the classification and actual status subsequently became more and more frequent in the first half of the 19th century and this process continues today: some wines classified as raw category end up selling to rates with an upgrade.
It was thus that took shape a commercial classification system is structured from top to bottom and changing according to the appearance of the areas and market trends.
In the early 17th century, the most sought after wines were the Graves; then the Médoc asserted its vocation as a region of excellence and its wines were the most successful, with prices accordingly.
In the mid-19th century, only the Haut-Brion could achieve rates comparable to those of Médoc and thus found himself to be the only Graves worthy to stand in the highest category of the hierarchy. No other Bordeaux region could boast of producing enough cheap wine to be included.
This classification was a touchstone for the local wine trade and all those who participated, owners, traders and brokers knew the exact place assigned to each area.
But it also experienced a wide distribution and hierarchy it established authority was well beyond the professional environment for which it was originally designed.
We see mentioned throughout the 19th century in various places , especially in the increasingly numerous books for wine lovers. It thus appears in Topography of all known vineyards, André Jullien (1816), The History of Ancient and Modern Wines, Alexander Henderson (1824) and A History and Description of Modern Wines, Cyrus Redding (1833). This classification also had an effect on national policies: for example in 1855 when included in a report of the British Parliament "on trade relations between France and Britain" or in a survey commissioned by the French Ministry of Agriculture and Commerce, entitled "wine culture, valuing output in 1847 and 1848".
This list always changing began to make appearances in a growing number of travel guides, as the foreign guide, who knew of multiple editions from 1825, or a book by Charles Cocks appeared in 1850 under the title of Bordeaux: Its Wines, and the Claret Country (which eventually became Bordeaux and its wines, the "bible" of burgundy). Each new print quote from the classification of their wines, owners, traders and brokers Bordeaux measured the exact situation of the market, and consumers are more accustomed to the idea of the excellence of the wines of Bordeaux.
The producers were surely proud to see their areas gain the status classified vintage, but this system also had a practical advantage. In the spring, when a new batch is ready for sale, both producers and traders were required to determine the fair price of the proposed wine.
From the success of this delicate operation depended on the future of the main activity of the biggest French department. But with thousands of producers offering their wine to hundreds of traders, the whole system would collapse if buyers had to start from scratch each year the price range. The classification was a precision tool which allowed streamline the process.
It was an accurate picture of tariffs charged for a long period of time, providing business dealings a starting point, and also a quick calculation rule to evaluate the fair price wines of the year. For example, if an area had traditionally sold in the category of third raw, and if the current price of the bottles in this category was a hundred francs, the amount was recognized as the one on which reasonably could rely owner as the client in their negotiations.
It was, and still is, common for some homeowners delay the sale of their new vintage to measure the approval or market resistance to their new tariff and there was the first offer to sell any order of precedence.
In 1855 held in Paris a Universal Exhibition of assembled products from all French regions and worldwide. Sent Bordeaux wines selected by the Chamber of Commerce. The organizers then clashed in a delicate problem: the choice had only six bottles for each domain, just enough for a display and tasting restricted by a panel of judges.
The thousands of visitors to the exhibition would not therefore no opportunity to judge for themselves the various qualities of Bordeaux wines. They should be content to see the alignment of the bottles in the windows and have a detailed map of Bordeaux, for better highlight the richness and excellence of the production regions. This card was accompanied by a picture of the greatest wines, prepared by the Union of brokers demand the Chamber of Commerce.
The dealers were all suitable for this task because of the three actors wine trade (producers, traders, brokers) were those who had the most comprehensive view. The owners knew their wine better than anyone, but had a less clear idea of the fate of their production outside the boundaries of their field.
The traders knew the market but had very precise ideas about the conditions of production of the wines they sold . Only united brokers direct knowledge of the vineyards because of their visits to all producers throughout the year and a real sense of business conditions through their relationship with the market.
Thus, 5 April 1855, the Chamber sent the Union brokers a letter requesting "a list of all the classified growths of red wine department, as accurate and complete as possible, specifying which of the five categories and each area belongs to what place it is located."
The front exhibition open in the month, the time allowed was very short. The syndicate of brokers fortunately had all the sources needed to provide within as short a list of the best wines. On April 18, it became known as the "1855 classification" and 150 years after its establishment it is still authoritative in the world of wine.
This classification does not necessarily included the wines sent to Paris by the Chamber of Commerce . In fact, most of the classified areas were not presented at the Exhibition. By reading the original document closely, you realize that their absence is indicated after their name with the word Point Finally,
this classification does not include necessarily a wine that had reached exceptional quality in 1854, the ranking system was based on an assessment of several years and only consistent quality assured a raw place in the hierarchy.
Consequently, the only reason for the presence of an area in the 1855 classification was its intrinsic merit, and its constant ability, proven over the years to produce a great wine.
Avec le temps, cette liste de courtiers affirma une autorité que n’atteignit aucune version antérieure à 1855. Durant toute la moitié du 19ème siècle, elle fixa les idées sur l’excellence des grands bordeaux. Cependant, il ne faut pas croire que cette référence pour les amateurs de vin ait empêché le marché de réévaluer les prix en fonction de l’évolution de la qualité.
Over time, this list brokers asserted an authority that did not reach any earlier version to 1855. Throughout the mid-19th century, she fixed ideas on the excellence of great Bordeaux. However, do not believe that this reference for wine lovers has prevented the market to reassess the price according to the quality changes. As shown some raw, the genius of the 1855 classification of n ' have never prohibited the market to ensure a quality wine trade fair reward. Even if there was, in 150 years, that two changes in the original list - the promotion of Mouton Rothschild in June 1973 and the inclusion of Cantemerle from raw fifths September 16, 1855, prices always remained mobile in terms of quality and years, a vintage can always, by its rates be above or below his rank "official" of 1855.
No one today would affirm that judgment of 1855 brokers may still apply exactly to the current situation of Bordeaux but the list remains remarkably valid. It preserves a great promotional power, not only for the classified wines, but also for the entire region. No other wine region in the world has such a prestigious classification tool. It is an incomparable card, reliable and reassuring, to guide novices in their first choice of bottles.
The "Grand Cru Classé in 1855" label is a legendary quality guarantee, and it is with pride that we always used to guests a wine that deserves it.
So this old list brokers remains a driving force for the entire Bordeaux region, as new markets, such as North America in the mid 20th century and Asia a few decades late, find out the quality of its wines and the pleasure of enjoying them.
In this time the hundred and fiftieth anniversary of the 1855 classification, it is clear that the world of wine is richer because of the existence of this testimony the exceptional quality of the Bordeaux production. The list itself, and castles that are enrolled, have a dual reality that affects our minds as our bodies: a mythical status, which indicates the possibility of perfection in an imperfect world, and its translation into these wines that provide so much satisfaction to oenophiles around the world.
Dewey Markham Jr. - « 1855 - The Story of a ranking of Bordeaux wines »
The official classification of Bordeaux wines of 1855 is the benchmark established at that time at the request of Emperor Napoleon III for the Universal Exhibition of Paris of 1855.
Official classification of Bordeaux wines of 1855
Château Lafite Rothschild - Pauillac [Label] [Le château] [The site]
Château Latour - Pauillac [Label 2001] [Le château] [The site]
Château Mouton Rothschild - Pauillac (second cru en 1855, promu en premier cru en 1973) [Label 1970] [Le château] [The site]
Château Margaux - Margaux [Label 1985] [Entrée du château] [The site]
Château Haut-Brion - Pessac-Léognan (Graves jusqu'en 1986, puis Pessac-Léognan) [Label 2005] [Entrée haut Brion] [The site]
Château Pichon-Longueville - Pauillac [The site]
Château Pichon Longueville Comtesse de Lalande - Pauillac) [The site]
Château Brane-Cantenac - Margaux (Cantenac-Margaux) [The site]
Château Durfort-Vivens - Margaux [The site]
Château Lascombes, Margaux [The site]
Château Rauzan-Gassies - Margaux [The site]
Château Rauzan-Ségla, Margaux (anciennement Château Rausan-Ségla)[The site]
Château Ducru-Beaucaillou - Saint-Julien [The site]
Château Gruaud Larose - Saint-Julien [The site]
Château Léoville Barton - Saint-Julien [The site]
Château Léoville Las Cases - Saint-Julien [The site]
Château Léoville Poyferré - Saint-Julien [The site]
Château Cos d'Estournel - Saint-Estèphe [The site]
Château Montrose - Saint-Estèphe [The site]
Château Boyd-Cantenac - Margaux
Château Cantenac Brown - Margaux (Cantenac-Margaux)
Château Desmirail - Margaux
Château d'Issan - Margaux (Cantenac-Margaux)
Château Ferrière - Margaux
Château Giscours - Margaux (Labarde-Margaux)
Château Kirwan - Margaux (Cantenac-Margaux)
Château Malescot St. Exupéry - Margaux
Château Marquis d'Alesme Becker - Margaux
Château Palmer - Margaux (Cantenac-Margaux)
Château Lagrange - Saint-Julien
Château Langoa Barton - Saint-Julien
Château Calon-Ségur - Saint-Estèphe
Château La Lagune - Haut-Médoc (Ludon)
Château Duhart-Milon - Pauillac
Château Marquis de Terme - Margaux
Château Pouget - Margaux (Cantenac-Margaux)
Château Prieuré-Lichine - Margaux (Cantenac-Margaux)
Château Beychevelle - Saint-Julien
Château Branaire-Ducru - Saint-Julien
Château Saint-Pierre - Saint-Julien
Château Talbot - Saint-Julien
Château Lafon-Rochet - Saint-Estèphe
Château La Tour Carnet - Haut-Médoc (St.-Laurent)
Château Batailley - Pauillac
Château Clerc Milon - Pauillac
Château Croizet-Bages - Pauillac
Château d'Armailhac - Pauillac (anciennement Château Mouton-Baronne-Philippe)
Château Grand-Puy Ducasse - Pauillac
Château Grand-Puy-Lacoste - Pauillac
Château Haut-Bages Libéral, Pauillac
Château Haut-Batailley - Pauillac
Château Lynch-Bages - Pauillac
Château Lynch-Moussas - Pauillac
Château Pédesclaux - Pauillac
Château Pontet-Canet - Pauillac
Château Dauzac - Margaux (Labarde)
Château du Tertre - Margaux (Arsac)
Château Cos Labory - Saint-Estèphe
Château Belgrave - Haut-Médoc (St.-Laurent)
Château de Camensac - Haut-Médoc (St.-Laurent) (anciennement Château Camensac)
Château Cantemerle - entré dans le classement en 1856 - Haut-Médoc (Macau)
Sauternes and barsac
Premier cru higher
Château d'Yquem - Sauternes [The site]
Château Climens - Barsac
Château Coutet - Barsac
Château Guiraud - Sauternes
Clos Haut-Peyraguey - Sauternes (à Bommes)
Château Lafaurie-Peyraguey - Sauternes (à Bommes)
Château La Tour Blanche, Sauternes (à Bommes)
Château Rabaud-Promis - Sauternes (à Bommes)
Château de Rayne-Vigneau - Sauternes (à Bommes)
Château Rieussec - Sauternes (à Fargues)
Château Sigalas-Rabaud - Sauternes (à Bommes)
Château Suduiraut - Sauternes (à Preignac)
Château Broustet - Barsac
Château Caillou - Barsac
Château Doisy Daëne - Barsac
Château Doisy-Dubroca - Barsac
Château Doisy-Védrines - Barsac
Château Myrat - Barsac (château de Myrat)
Château Nairac - Barsac
Château Suau - Barsac
Château d'Arche - Sauternes
Château Filhot - Sauternes
Château Lamothe - Sauternes
Château Lamothe Guignard - Sauternes
Château de Malle - Sauternes (à Preignac)
Château Romer - Sauternes (à Fargues)
Château Romer du Hayot - Sauternes (à Fargues)
Crus Bourgeois du Médoc
Official Selection in 2008 published 23 September 2010
Ch. Begadanet - Ch. Bellegrave - Ch. Bellerive - Ch. Bellevue - Ch. Bessan segur - Ch. Bournac - Ch. Carcanieux - Ch. Castera - Ch. Chantelys - Ch. Chantemerle - Ch. Clément Saint Jean - Ch. David - Ch. De Bensse - Ch. de la Croix - Ch. de Panigon - Ch. des Brousteras - Ch. des Cabans - Ch. des Granges d’Or - Ch. des Tourelles - Ch. d’Escot - Ch. d’Escurac - Ch. Du Perier - Ch. Fleur La Mothe - Ch. Fontaine de l’Aubier - Ch. Fontis - Ch. Grand Bertin de Saint Clair - Ch. Greysac - Ch. Griviere - Ch. Haut Barrail - Ch. Haut Canteloup - Ch. Haut Maurac - Ch. Haut-Myles - Ch. Hourbanon - Ch. La Branne - Ch. La Cardonne - Ch. La Clare - Ch. La Gorce - Ch. La Gravette Lacombe - Ch. La Pirouette - Ch. La Raze Beauvallet - Ch. La Ribaud - Ch. La Roque de By - Ch. Labadie - Ch. Laffitte Laujac - Ch. Lalande d’Auvion - Ch. l’Argenteyre - Ch. Lassus - Ch. Laulan Ducos - Ch. Le Barrail - Ch. Le Bourdieu - Ch. Le Pey - Ch. Le Temple - Ch. Leboscq - Ch. Les Grands Chênes - Ch. Les Lattes - Ch. Les Moines - Ch. Les Ormes Sorbet - Ch. Les Tuileries - Ch. Lestruelle - Ch. l’Inclassable - Ch. Listran - Ch. Loudenne - Ch. Lousteauneuf - Ch. Maison Blanche - Ch. Mazails - Ch. Meric - Ch. Moulin de Bel Air - Ch. Moulin de Brion - Ch. Moulin de Canhaut - Ch. Moulin de Cassy - Ch. Noaillac - Ch. Patache d’Aux - Ch. Pey de Pont - Ch. Pierre de Montignac - Ch. Poitevin - Ch. Pontey - Ch. Preuillac - Ch. Ramafort - Ch. Ricaudet - Ch. Rollan de By - Ch. Roquegrave - Ch. Rousseau de Sipian - Ch. Saint Bonnet - Ch. Saint-Christoly - Ch. Saint-Christophe - Ch. Saint-Hilaire - Ch. Segue Longue Monnier - Ch. Tour Blanche - Ch. Tour Castillon - Ch. Tour Haut-Caussan - Ch. Tour Prignac - Ch. Tour Saint-Bonnet - Ch. Tour Seran - Ch. Vernous - Ch. Vieux Robin - Vieux Ch. Landon
Ch. Aney - Ch. Balac - Ch. Barateau - Ch. Barreyres - Ch. Beaumont - Ch. Bel Air - Ch. Bellegrave du Poujeau - Ch. Bellevue - Ch. Beyzac - Ch. Bibian - Ch. Cambon La Pelouse - Ch. Caronne Sainte Gemme - Ch. Charmail - Ch. Cissac - Ch. Clémentpichon - Ch. d’Agassac - Ch. d’Arche - Ch. d’Arcins - Ch. Dasvin Bel Air - Ch. d’Aurilhac - Ch. de Braude - Ch. de Gironville - Ch. de l’Abbaye - Ch. de Malleret - Ch. de Villambis - Ch. de Villegeorge - Ch. Devise d’Ardilley - Ch. Doyac - Ch. du Breuil - Ch. du Cartillon - Ch. du Moulin Rouge - Ch. du Retout - Ch. du Taillan - Ch. Duthil - Ch. Fontesteau - Ch. Grand Clapeau Olivier - Ch. Grandis - Ch. Hanteillan - Ch. Haut Bellevue - Ch. Haut Logat - Ch. Haut Madrac - Ch. Hourtin-Ducasse - Ch. La Fon du Berger - Ch. La Lauzette Declercq - Ch. La Tonnelle - Ch. Labat - Ch. Lacour Jacquet - Ch. Lamothe Bergeron - Ch. Lamothe Cissac - Ch. Landat - Ch. Larose Perganson - Ch. Larose Trintaudon - Ch. Larrivaux - Ch. le Bourdieu Vertheuil - Ch. le Monteil d’Arsac - Ch. Lestage Simon - Ch. Lieujean - Ch. Liversan - Ch. Magnol - Ch. Malescasse - Ch. Maucaillou Felletin - Ch. Maucamps, Ch. Maurac - Ch. Meyre - Ch. Moulin de Blanchon - Ch. Moulin de Laborde - Ch. Muret - Ch. Paloumey - Ch. Peyrabon - Ch. Peyrat-Fourthon - Ch. Pontoise Cabarrus - Ch. Ramage La Batisse - Ch. Reynats - Ch. Reysson - Ch. Saint Ahon - Ch. Saint-Paul - Ch. Tour du Haut-Moulin, Ch. Tour-du-Roc - Ch. Tour Saint-Joseph - Ch. Trois-Moulins - Ch. Victoria
Ch. Baudan - Ch. Cap Léon Veyrin - Ch. Capdet - Ch. Donissan - Ch. Fonreaud - Ch. Lafon - Ch. l’Ermitage - Ch. Lestage - Ch. Liouner - Ch. Reverdi - Ch. Saransot-Dupré - Ch. Vieux Moulin
Moulis en Médoc
Ch. Anthonic - Ch. Biston Brillette - Ch. Branas Grand Poujeaux - Ch. Brillette - Ch. Chemin Royal - Ch. Dutruch Grand Poujeaux - Ch. Guitignan - Ch. La Garricq - Ch. La Mouline - Ch. Lalaudey - Ch. Malmaison - Ch. Pomeys
Ch. d’Arsac - Ch. Deyrem Valentin - Ch. Grand Tayac - Ch. Haut Breton Larigaudière - Ch. La Galiane - Ch. La Tour de Bessan - Ch. La Tour de Mons - Ch. le Côteau - Ch. Mongravey - Ch. Paveil de Luze - Ch. Pontac Lynch - Ch. Pontet Chappaz - Ch. Tayac
Ch. Du Glana - Ch. Lalande
Ch. Fonbadet - Ch. Haut-Bages Monpelou - Ch. La Fleur Peyrabon - Ch. Plantey - Ch. Tour Sieujea
Ch. Beau Site - Ch. Bel Air - Ch. Clauzet - Ch. Coutelin Merville - Ch. de Côme - Ch. Domeyne - Ch. La Commanderie - Ch. La Haye - Ch. Ladouys - Ch. Laffitte Carcasset - Ch. l’Argilus du Roi - Ch. Le Boscq - Ch. Le Crock - Ch. Lilian Ladouys - Ch. Petit Bocq - Ch. Picard - Ch. Plantier Rose - Ch. Ségur de Cabanac - Ch. Sérilhan - Ch. Tour de Pez - Ch. Tour des Termes - Ch. Tour Saint-Fort
Medoc Cru Artisan
Official Selection published January 11, 2006
Château BAUDENS - Château BEGADAN - Château BEJAC ROMELYS - Château CANTEGRIC GFA - Château GADET TERREFORT - Château GARANCE HAUT GRENAT - Château GRAVES DU PRIVERA - Château HAUT BLAIGNAN - Château LA TESSONNIÈRE - Château LE VIEUX SÉRESTIN - Château LES GRAVES DE LOIRAC - Château LES TRIEUX - Château VIEUX GADET
Château CLOS DU RELAIS - Château DE COUDOT - Château DE LAUGA - Château DES GRAVIERS - Château D’OSMOND - Château DU GALAN - Château FERRÉ - Château GASTON RÉNA - Château GRAND BRUN - Domaine GRAND LAFONT - Château GUITTOT FELLONNEAU - Château HAUT BRÉGA - Château LAMONGEAU - Château LE BEYAN - Château LE BOUSCAT - Château MARTIN - Château MICALET - Château MOUTTE BLANC - Château TOUR BEL AIR - Château TOUR DU GOUA - Château VIALLET NOUHANT - Château VIEUX GABAREY
Château GOBINAUD (AOC Listrac) - Château LAGORCE BERNADAS (AOC Moulis) - Clos De BIGOS (AOC Margaux) - Château DES GRAVIERS (AOC Margaux) - Château DES TROIS CHARDONS (AOC Margaux) - Château GASSIES DU VIEUX BOURG (AOC Margaux) - Château CAPDET (AOC Saint Julien) - Château BÉHÈRÉ (AOC Pauillac) - Château LA PEYRE (AOC Saint Estèphe)
Large Graves Crus (1959)
Château Bouscaut (Cadaujac)
Château Carbonnieux (Léognan)
Château Couhins (Villenave d’Ornon)
Château Couhins Lurton (Villenave d’Ornon)
Château Fieuzal (Léognan)
Château Haut-Bailly (Léognan)
Château Haut-Brion (Pessac)
Château La Mission Haut-Brion (Pessac)
Château Latour Haut-Brion (Pessac)
Château Latour Martillac (Martillac)
Château Laville Haut-Brion (Pessac)
Château Malartic Lagravière (Léognan)
Château Olivier (Léognan)
Château Pape Clément (Pessac)
Château Smith Haut-Lafitte (Martillac)
Domaine de Chevalier (Léognan)
The Crus of Sauternes
Premier Cru higher
Château d’Yquem (Sauternes) [Label 2001] [Le château]
Château Climens (Barsac)
Château Clos Haut Peyraguey (Bommes)
Château Coutet (Barsac)
Château Guiraud (Sauternes)
Château Lafaurie Peyraguey (Bommes)
Château Rabaud Promis (Bommes)
Château Rayne Vigneau (Bommes)
Château Rieussec (Fargues)
Château Sigalas Rabaud (Bommes)
Château Suduiraut (Preignac)
Château La Tour Blanche (Bommes)
Château d’Arche (Sauternes)
Château Broustet (Barsac)
Château Caillou (Barsac)
Château Doisy Daëne (Barsac)
Château Doisy Dubroca (Barsac)
Château Doisy Védrines (Barsac)
Château Filhot (Sauternes)
Château Lamothe (Guignard) (Sauternes)
Château de Malle (Preignac)
Château Myrat (Barsac)
Château Nairac (Barsac)
Château Romer (du Hayot) (Fargues)
Crus of Saint Emilion in 2012
C'est à partir de 1955 que les vins de Saint-Émilion ont été classés, à la suite d'une décision prise en 1954 par le syndicat viticole des Vins de Saint-Émilion1. Il s'agit du classement de l'appellation saint-émilion grand cru et non de l'appellation saint-émilion, qui pour sa part n'a pas de classement officiel.
ConContrairement au classement de 1855 (classement qui pour sa part ne concerne que des vins de la rive gauche de la Garonne), il est révisable tous les dix ans.
Premiers Grands Crus Classés (A)
Château ANGELUS [Label 2005]
Château AUSONE [Label 1958]
Château CHEVAL-BLANC [Label 1989]
Château PAVIE [Label 2008]
Premiers Grands Crus Classés (B)
Château BEAUSÉJOUR (DUFFAU-LAGARROSSE)
Château BEAU-SÉJOUR BÉCOT)
Château LA GAFFELIÈRE
Château LA MONDOTTE
Grands Crus Classés
Château LE CHÂTELET
Château CLOS DE SARPE
Château LA CLOTTE
Château LA COMMANDERIE
Château CÔTE DE BALEAU
Château LA COUSPAUDE
Château COUVENT DES JACOBINS
Château LA DOMINIQUE
Château FAURIE DE SOUCHARD
Château DE FERRAND
Château LA FLEUR MORANGE
Château GRAND CORBIN
Château GRAND CORBIN-DESPAGNE
Château LES GRANDES MURAILLES
Clos des JACOBINS
Château JEAN FAURE
Clos la MADELEINE
Château LA MARZELLE
Château MOULIN DU CADET
Clos de L'ORATOIRE
Château de PRESSAC
Château LE PRIEURÉ
Château QUINAULT L'ENCLOS
Château La SERRE
Château LA TOUR-FIGEAC
Château HAUT-CORBIN a été classé Grand Cru mais fusionne, avec l'avis de la commission, avec château GRAND-CORBIN.
Château CADET-PIOLA sort du classement car il fusionne avec château SOUTARD.
Château BERGAT sort du classement car il est intégré dans le château TROTTEVIEILLE.
Château LA CLUSIÈRE sort du classement car il fusionne avec château PAVIE.